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The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 20 November, 1989. The Convention lists out in details that every child shall enjoy the right to life and survival, development, protection and participation. The Convention also formulates minimum standards for the provision of medical and health care, education, legislation and social services; where States Parties are required to follow through. Through the ratification of the Convention, each State Party's government has pledged to protect and ensure the rights of children, and is willing to live up their pledge at the international community level.

The Convention was being discussed and negotiated for a very long period of time by government officials, professionals of the legal, medical and health, social welfare, and education sectors, as well as people from the children supporting agencies, non-governmental organizations, and religious groups before its formal adoption. Now, 193 countries/places have ratified the Convention, and it has become the most widely recognized international treaty so far. It is also the first legally binding international treaty that has comprehensively covered all the rights of children.

The Convention was extended to Hong Kong on 7 September, 1994, through the government of the United Kingdom, the previous sovereign state of Hong Kong. Later, the Convention was re-affirmed by the government of the People's Republic of China on 10 June, 1997, and it continues to be effective in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.